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Air navigation in Europe today and tomorrow

SESAR document overview "ADS-B and other means of surveillance implementation status", containing information on the introduction of ADS-B, multilateration and SSR in Europe.
AUGUST, 30 / 2019 / 7 MINUTES
Фото вышки в Örnsköldsvik
In the world of civil aviation, secondary radar has been used for a long time, currently about 200 secondary radars are operated in the EU ATM systems. S-band infrastructure is widespread at airports and surrounding areas.
Along with this, for about 10 years, multilateration and ADS-B have been introduced in Europe. This trend will continue after 2020. The growth of traffic and the implementation of new SESAR concepts contribute to updating current solutions.

Among them:
- improving security and increasing situational awareness;
- optimal flight paths and approaches (PBN, RNav);
- reduction of intervals of movement;
- the introduction of drones, etc.
All this contributes to the introduction of technologies that make it possible to conduct surveillance with a higher update rate and with greater accuracy.
Multilateration
Сеть систем мультилатерации (включая широкозонную)
SESAR ADS-B and other means of surveillance implementation status
The SESAR report reports about 80 zones in 16 countries. Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) systems continue to be implemented. These solutions can be used as an alternative to secondary radars.

The multilateration principle makes it possible to determine the location of aircraft by the time delay of receiving a signal from the board by several ground stations. The infrastructure is mobile and has relatively low power consumption.

The cost of wide-area multilateration is usually lower than the cost of similar solutions using secondary radars (depending on each specific case). Such systems can be deployed not only in traditional areas, but also in previously inaccessible places for observation, ranging from mountains (for example, as is done in Australia or Austria), ending with oil and gas production platforms on the high seas (Great Britain). Most broadband multilateration stations are also configured to operate as ADS-B 1090ES receivers. The average life of systems deployed in Europe is 15 years. Of the most recent projects in the EU, Sweden can be noted , where an observation zone covers the entire country.
Solutions based on multilateration at airports are so far less common than S-band locators, about 40 systems are installed that are installed at major European airports. Almost all systems located at airports are integrated into the EU ATM system and are used for real-time tracking of airborne vehicles and vehicles. All current operators reported full coverage of the maneuvering zone and mainly full coverage of the apron zones, as well as their plans to continue operating existing systems in the future. At Russian airports, the process of introducing similar systems has also begun.
ADS-B: ground segment
ADS-B in the EU today is fragmented. More than 70 stations have been installed,, of which about 90% are in operation. Most often they are used in isolated areas (Corsica and the Faroe Islands) and on oil rigs in the North Sea. Along with this, Norway operates areas where ADS-B is the only means of monitoring air traffic. The remaining service life of existing ADS-B systems averages 12 years.

At EU airports, ADS-B is widespread. Most of the stations are integrated into ATM systems, and it is also planned to combine them with existing multilateration systems. At airports, ADS-B is most often part of the A-SMGCS ground control and control systems.
In Europe, ADS-B 1090ES is supported. There are two more types of data transmission lines: UAT - developed and certified only for the USA, and VDL-4 - Swedish development. VDL-4 did not receive support in the world for a number of reasons, including interference problems, lower data transfer speed compared to 1090ES / UAT, and others. In 2003, an Airbus document was published on the ICAO website listing data and other reasons, and it was reported that Airbus supported the AEA's opinion that it would stop working on the ADS-B VDL-4. It has been proposed to redirect resources to work with 1090ES.
ADS-B: Equipment for the sides
The ADS-B and other means of surveillance implementation status report notes that only about 20% of the fleets of aircraft operators comply with the ED-102A (DO260B) standard, most of which are focused on new deliveries in the next few years.
What's next? Prospects for Multilateration
Multilateration (including wide-area) after 2020
SESAR ADS-B and other means of surveillance implementation status
The number of multilateration systems (including wide-gap) continues to grow. It is planned to create more than 20 new zones. A large-scale deployment initiative is reported in the Alpine region, as well as systems in Greece, Romania, the Baltic States and Denmark. All new systems are likely to be able to provide ADS-B data. The use of multilateration at airports will also be increased and continued. It states plans to install and upgrade about 30 multilateration systems between 2018 and 2020.

In the long run, and as secondary radar malfunctions, wide-area multilateration will increasingly play the role of an alternative. Some countries, such as Italy, Finland, Croatia, and the Slovak Republic, will deploy additional projects. The UK and Hungary also have similar plans, data from their systems, however, will not be integrated into a single EU ATM system.
Secondary Radars (SSR)
The EU's secondary S-band radar infrastructure is still waiting for a number of extensions. Operators are reporting plans to install some 58 locators between 2018 and 2021. After 2022, the total number of locators will be reduced.

ADS-B

The situation with the installation of ADS-B in Europe also tends to increase. A total of more than 60 systems are included in investment plans.
Space based ADS-B
The document also notes that the space system ADS-B should enable observations of the Atlantic, in remote and geographically complex areas of the world, in areas with poor and with good infrastructure, for example, in the center of Europe. National Operators of Great Britain (NATS) and Canada (Nav Canada) plan to deploy space-based ADS-B (Aireon) in the North Atlantic and Canada in 2019-2020. Some European operators plan to start using it as early as 2019.

More recently, Aireon has been officially approved by the European Union Aviation Security Agency (EASA) as an air navigation services provider for the continued provision of air traffic control services.
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